was born near Philadelphia at Waynesborough, Chester County,
Pennsylvania, Jan. 1, 1745. Wayne was named for his grandfather,
who had fought with the British army before emigrating to
America. After studies in Philadelphia, Wayne surveyed the coast
of Nova Scotia and later returned to the family farm in
outbreak of war with England in 1776, Wayne was commissioned a
colonel and assisted General Benedict Arnold in his retreat from
Quebec. He held various positions with the Continental Army and
shared with General George Washington the long winter of 1777-78
at Valley Forge. In 1779, Wayne and his troops captured the
English garrison at Stony Point, N.Y. Sent south in 1781,
Wayne and his command were hemmed in by British General Charles
Cornwallis' superior forces at Green Springs, Va., but managed
to escape with his men. He then served under General Nathaniel
Greene, helping to force the British out of Georgia and South
Carolina in 1782.
was recalled as a major general by Washington in 1792 and sent
to take command in Ohio.
Americans knew him as "Mad Anthony," but the Indians
would call him "Blacksnake," because, like the
blacksnake, Wayne sat quietly, patiently waiting for the right
moment to strike. Wayne trained an army of regulars while
building a line of forts aimed straight into the heartland of
the alliance in northwest Ohio. As the alliance chiefs nervously
watched Wayne's slow, methodical approach, American
commissioners made overtures of peace. The British again urged
resistance, and the Shawnee killed two American representatives
enroute to a conference with the alliance. The alliance,
however, was beginning to unravel. It could field 2,000 warriors
but had trouble feeding them over an extended period, and Wayne
was definitely extending the conflict. In 1792 the Wabash tribes
(Peoria, Piankashaw, Kickapoo, and Wea) signed a treaty with the
Americans which caused them to leave the alliance and remain
neutral. The Fox and Sauk also withdrew at the same time.
In July, 1793
American commissioners met for the last time with the alliance.
At first, only the Wyandot, Shawnee, and Miami favored
continuing the war, while the others were undecided. Finally,
the majority decided to fight, and the meeting ended. In October
Wayne received orders to begin an advance north from Fort
Washington (Cincinnati). One of Wayne's supply trains was
destroyed at Ludlow Spring, but he established himself at Fort
Greenville (80 miles north of Cincinnati). As the time of
confrontation approached, doubts emerged within the alliance,
and the Shawnee chief, Blue Jacket opened separate negotiations.
The start of Wayne's advance may also have played a part in the
British decision to finally close its forts on American
territory and reach an accommodation with the United States.
After a desperate attack on the Americans at Fort Recovery
failed, the alliance had only 700 warriors in August, 1794 to
face Wayne's Legion at Fallen Timbers. After the battle, the
retreating warriors sought refuge with the British at Fort
Miami, only to have them close the gates on their former allies.
marched right up to the British fort but did not attack.
Afterwards, the Americans burned several nearby Indian villages
and destroyed their food supplies. Then Wayne returned to Fort
Greenville and waited. After a hungry winter, the alliance made
peace. No longer able to rely on British help against the
Americans, the Wyandot and other tribes signed the Treaty of
Fort Greenville in 1795 ceding all of Ohio except the northwest.
accepting the surrender of Detroit in 1796, General Anthony
Wayne was seized with a severe attack of gout and died at Fort
Presque Isle, Penn., Dec. 15, 1796.